Only very few libraries in the tang and Song held more than one or two thousand titles (a size not even matched by the manuscript collections of paper the grandest of the great cathedral libraries in Europe). — Endymion Wilkinson However despite the initial advantage afforded to China by the paper medium, by the 9th century its spread and development in the middle east had closed the gap between the two regions. Between the 9th to early 12th centuries, libraries in cairo, baghdad, and Cordoba held collections larger than even the ones in China, and dwarfed those in Europe. From about 1500 the maturation of paper making and printing in southern Europe also had an effect in closing the gap with the Chinese. The venetian Domenico Grimani 's collection numbered 15,000 volumes by the time of his death in 1523. After 1600, european collections completely overtook those in China. The bibliotheca augusta numbered 60,000 volumes in 1649 and surged to 120,000 in 1666. In the 1720s the bibliotheque du roi numbered 80,000 books and the cambridge University 40,000 in 1715. After 1700, libraries in North America also began to overtake those of China, and toward the end of the century, thomas Jefferson 's private collection numbered 4,889 titles in 6,487 volumes.
The personal nature of texts was remarked upon by a late 6th century imperial librarian. According to him, the possession of and familiarity with a few hundred scrolls was what it took to be socially accepted as an educated man. According to Endymion Wilkinson, one consequence of the rise of paper in China was that "it rapidly began to surpass the mediterranean empires in book production." During the tang dynasty, china became the world leader in book production. In addition the gradual spread of woodblock printing from the late tang and Song further boosted their lead ahead of the rest of the world. From the fourth century ce to about 1500, the biggest library collections in China were three to four times larger than the largest collections in Europe. The imperial government book collections in the tang numbered about 5,000 to 6,000 titles (89,000 juan ) in 721. The song imperial collections at their height in the early twelfth century may have risen to 4,000 to 5,000 titles. These are indeed impressive numbers, but the imperial libraries were exceptional in China and their use was highly restricted.
Themes and sources (Part
In the same period, it was written that tea was served from baskets with multi-colored paper cups and paper napkins of different size and shape. 11 During the song dynasty (9601279) the government produced the world's first known paper-printed money, or banknote ( see jiaozi and huizi ). Paper money was bestowed as gifts to fat government officials in special paper envelopes. 13 During the yuan dynasty (12711368 the first well-documented Europeans in Medieval China, the venetian merchant Marco polo remarked how the Chinese burned paper effigies shaped as male and female servants, camels, horses, suits of clothing and armor while cremating the dead during funerary rites. 14 Impact of paper edit According to timothy hugh Barrett, paper played a pivotal role in early Chinese written culture, and a "strong reading culture seems to have developed quickly after its introduction, despite political fragmentation." Indeed the introduction of paper had immense consequences for. It meant books would no longer have to be circulated in small sections or bundles, but in their entirety. Books could now be carried by hand rather than transported by cart.
As a result individual collections of literary works increased in the following centuries. Textual culture seems to have been more developed in the south by the early 5th century, with individuals owning collections of several thousand scrolls. In the north an entire palace collection might have been only a few thousand scrolls in total. By the early 6th century, scholars in both the north and south were capable of citing upwards of 400 sources in commentaries on older works. A small compilation text from the 7th century included citations to over 1,400 works.
After printing was popularized during the song dynasty the demand for paper grew substantially. In the year 1101,.5 million sheets of paper were sent to the capital. 10 Uses edit Open, it stretches; closed, it rolls. It can be contracted or expanded; hidden away or displayed. — fu xian Among the earliest known uses of paper was padding and wrapping delicate bronze mirrors according to archaeological evidence dating to the reign of Emperor wu of Han from the 2nd century.
11 Padding doubled as both protection for the object as well as the user in cases where poisonous "medicine" were involved, as mentioned in the official history of the period. 11 Although paper was used for writing by the 3rd century ad, 12 paper continued to be used for wrapping (and other) purposes. Toilet paper was used in China from around the late 6th century. 13 In 589, the Chinese scholar-official Yan Zhitui (531591) wrote: "Paper on which there are"tions or commentaries from five classics or the names of sages, i dare not use for toilet purposes". 13 An Arab traveler who visited China wrote of the curious Chinese tradition of toilet paper in 851, writing: ". . the Chinese do not wash themselves with water when they have done their necessities; but they only wipe themselves with paper". 13 During the tang dynasty (618907) paper was folded and sewn into square bags to preserve the flavor of tea.
Paper 1, presubmission, history and Future of the
But silk being costly and bamboos heavy they were not convenient to use. Tshai lun then initiated the idea of making paper from the bark of trees, remnants of hemp, rags of cloth and fishing nets. He submitted the process to the emperor in trunk the first year of yuan-Hsing (105 AD) and received praise for his ability. From this time, paper has been in use everywhere and is universally called the paper of Marquis Tshai. The production process may have originated from the practice of pounding and stirring rags in water, after which oliver the matted fibres were collected on a mat. The bark of Paper Mulberry was particularly valued and high quality paper was developed in the late han period using the bark of tan sandalwood ). In the eastern Jin period a fine bamboo screen-mould treated with insecticidal dye for permanence was used in papermaking.
The innovation is a type of paper made of mulberry and other bast fibres along with resume fishing nets, old rags, and hemp waste which reduced the cost of paper production, which prior to this, and later, in the west, depended solely on rags. 8 Techniques edit during the Shang (16001050 BC) and Zhou (1050256 BC) dynasties of ancient China, documents were ordinarily written on bone or bamboo (on tablets or on bamboo strips sewn and rolled together into scrolls making them very heavy, awkward, and hard to transport. The light material of silk was sometimes used as a recording medium, but was normally too expensive to consider. The han dynasty Chinese court official cai lun (ca. 50121) is credited as the inventor of a method of papermaking (inspired by wasps and bees) using rags and other plant fibers in 105. However, the discovery of specimens bearing written Chinese characters in 2006 at Fangmatan in north-east China's Gansu Province suggests that paper was in use by the ancient Chinese military more than 100 years before cai, in 8 bc, and possibly much earlier as the map. 6 It therefore would appear that "cai lun's contribution was to improve this skill systematically and scientifically, fix a recipe for papermaking". 9 The record in the Twenty-four Histories says 10 In ancient times writings and inscriptions were generally made on tablets of bamboo or on pieces of silk called chih.
organic material not as highly processed as paper, was prone to splitting and deterioration at a much greater rate; this may be why vellum eventually came to dominate, especially in the. Paper, by contrast, gave a good, uniform writing surface that could be smoothly rolled and unrolled without damage, while remaining relatively durable. Barrett In the pre-columbian Americas, a type of early bark paper known as amate was used as a folded writing material for codices. The earliest sample of amate was found at huitzilapa near the magdalena municipality, jalisco, mexico, belonging to the shaft tomb culture. 4 Paper in China edit earliest known extant paper fragment unearthed at Fangmatan, circa 179 bc hemp wrapping paper, western Han period of China, circa 100 bc oldest paper book, dating to ad 256 The world's earliest known printed book (using woodblock printing the diamond. Main article: Papermaking Further information: cai lun Invention of paper, and Science and technology of the han Dynasty Archaeological evidence of papermaking predates the traditional attribution given to cai lun, 5 an imperial eunuch official of the han dynasty (202 bc ad 220 thus the. The earliest extant paper fragment was unearthed at Fangmatan in Gansu province, and was likely part of a map, dated to 179141. 6 Fragments of paper have also been found at Dunhuang dated to 65 bc and at Yumen pass, dated to. "cai lun's" invention, recorded hundreds of years after it took place, is dated to 105.
Nor is true parchment considered paper a ; used principally for writing, parchment is heavily prepared animal skin that predates paper and possibly papyrus. In the twentieth century with the advent of plastic manufacture some plastic "paper" was introduced, as well as paper-plastic laminates, paper-metal laminates, and papers infused or coated with different products that give them special properties. Contents, precursors: papyrus and amate edit. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from papyrus, ancient Greek for the, cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean societies for writing long before paper was used in China. 1 Papyrus however are plants pressed and dried, while paper is made from fibers whose properties have been changed by maceration or disintegration. 2 It is lucky chance that the date of ce 105 was recorded, because cai lun, the official involved, who seems to have introduced some improvements in paper manufacture, worked at the palace as a eunuch. Yet just because the new technology was not trumpeted at the time does not mean mattress that it had no effect.
History, essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays
Five seminal steps in ancient, chinese papermaking outlined in a woodcut, paper, a thin unwoven material made from milled plant fibers, is primarily used for writing, artwork, and packaging; it is commonly white. The first papermaking process was documented in China during the. Eastern Han period (25220. traditionally attributed to the court official. During the 8th century, chinese papermaking spread to the. Islamic world, where pulp mills and paper mills were used for money making. By the 11th century, papermaking was brought to medieval Europe, where it was refined with the earliest known paper mills utilizing waterwheels. Later, western improvements to the papermaking process came in the 19th century with the invention of wood-based papers. Although precursors such as papyrus and amate existed in the, mediterranean world and pre-columbian Americas, respectively, these materials are not defined as true paper.