A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water. Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels Clark, 1997. There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca mountain waste site weiss, 1996. The proximity of Yucca mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment. I propose to review the available literature about using Yucca mountain as a possible repository for spent nuclear fuel. In this review I will achieve the following two goals: (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and (2) determine whether Yucca mountain meets these criteria. According to the department of Energy (doe a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including homework safety, location, and economics roush, 1995.
There are many questions regarding the safety of the yucca mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb taubes, 1995. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca mountain. Bowman's theory that Yucca mountain could explode is based upon the idea interests that enough waste will eventually disperse through the rock to create a critical mass. A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction Murray, 1989. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the chain reaction taubes, 1995. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast.
Commercial reactors as well as high level nuclear weapons waste, such as uranium and plutonium roush, 1995. Because of the build-up of this waste, some power plants will be forced to shut down. To avoid losing an important source of energy, a safe and economical place to keep this waste is necessary. This document proposes a literature review of whether Yucca mountain is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository. The proposed review will discuss the economical and environmental aspects of a national storage facility. This proposal includes my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. Statement of Problem, on January 1, 1998, the department of Energy (DOE) must accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial plants for permanent storage Clark, 1997. However, the doe is undecided on where to put this high level radioactive waste. Yucca mountain, located in nevada, is a proposed site.
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With internal projects, there probably won't be a fee, but you should still list the project costs: for example, hours you will need to complete the project, equipment and supplies you'll be using, assistance from other people in the organization, and. The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a focus on the positive aspects of the project (you've just showed them the costs). In the final section, you can end by urging them to get in touch to work out the details of the project, to remind them of the benefits of doing the project, and maybe to put in one last plug for you or your organization. Remember that the preceding sections are typical or common in written proposals, not absolute requirements. Similarly, some proposals may require other sections not discussed above. Don't let your proposal planning be dictated by the preceding discussion. Always ask yourself what else might my audience need to understand the project, the need for it, the benefits arising from it, my role in it, my qualifications to it What else might my readers need to be convinced to allow me to do the.
What else do they need to see in order to approve the project and to approve me to do the project? A Proposal to research the Storage facility for Spent Nuclear fuel at Yucca mountain. Roger Bloom, october 1997, introduction, nuclear power plants produce more than 20 percent of the electricity used in the United States Murray, 1989. Unfortunately, nuclear fission, the process used to create write this large amount energy, creates significant amounts of high level radioactive waste. More than 30,000 metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from.
For example, in the forestry proposal, the writer gives a bit of background on how timber management is done. Once again, this gives you the proposal writer a chance to show that you know what you are talking about, and build confidence in the audience that you are a good choice to do the project. Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the projected completion date but also key milestones for the project. If you are doing a large project spreading over many months, the timeline would also show dates on which you would deliver progress reports. And if you can't cite specific dates, cite amounts of time or time spans for each phase of the project.
(see the examples of the schedule section example proposal 1 and example proposal. Most proposals contain a summary of the proposing individual's or organization's qualifications to do the proposed work. It's like a mini-resume contained in the proposal. The proposal audience uses it to decide whether you are suited for the project. Therefore, this section lists work experience, similar projects, references, training, and education that shows familiarity with the project. (see the examples of the qualifications section example proposal 1 and example proposal. Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project, whether internal or external. With external projects, you may need to list your hourly rates, projected hours, costs of equipment and supplies, and so forth, and then calculate the total cost of the complete project.
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Most proposals must internet describe the finished product of the proposed project. In this course, that means describing the written document you interests propose to write, its audience and purpose; providing an outline; and discussing such things as its length, graphics, binding, and so forth.) In the scenario you define, there may be other work such as conducting. In most proposals, you'll want to explain how you'll go about doing the proposed work, if approved to. This acts as an additional persuasive element; it shows the audience you have a sound, well-thought-out approach to the project. Also, it serves as the other form of background some proposals need. Remember that the background section (the one discussed above) focused on the problem or need that brings about the proposal. However, in this section, you discuss the technical background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the proposed work.
In the forestry proposal, the proposer network is recommending that the landowner make an investment; at the end of the proposal, he explores the question of what return there will be on that investment, how likely those returns are. In the unsolicited proposal, this section is particularly important-you are trying to "sell" the audience on the project. Schematic view of proposals. Remember that is a typical or common model for the contents and organization-many others are possible. Schematic view of proposals-continued. Remember too that each of the specific sections shown here may not be necessary in your proposal and that the order shown here may not be entirely right for your proposal. Description of the proposed work (results of the project).
this.). It's true that the audience of the proposal may know the problem very well, in which case this section might not be needed. Writing the background section still might be useful, however, in demonstrating your particular view of the problem. And, if the the proposal is unsolicited, a background section is almost a requirement-you will probably need to convince the audience that the problem or opportunity exists and that it should be addressed. Benefits and feasibility of the proposed project. Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project. This acts as an argument in favor of approving the project. Also, some proposals discuss the likelihood of the project's success.
Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the recipient to read on and to consider doing the project. Give an overview of the contents of the proposal. Now remember: you may not need all of these small elements, and some of them can combine neatly into single sentences. The introduction ought to be brisk and to the point and not feel as though it is trudging laboriously through each of these elements. Take a look at the introductions in the example proposal 1 and example proposal 2, and try to identify these elements. Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation. Often occurring just after the introduction, the background section discusses what has brought about the need for the project-what problem, what opportunity there is for improving things, what the basic situation. For example, management of a chain of daycare centers may need to ensure that all employees know cpr (maybe new state guidelines have been enacted about cpr certification).
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The following is a review of the sections you'll commonly find in proposals. Don't assume that each one of them has to be in the actual proposal you write, nor that they have to be in the order they are presented here-plus you may discover that other kinds of information not mentioned here must be included in your. As you read the following on common sections in proposals, check out the example proposals starting on page. Not all of the sections discussed in the following will show up in the examples, but most will. Plan the introduction to your proposal carefully. Make sure it does all of the following things (but gpa not necessarily in this order) that apply to your particular proposal: Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal. Refer to some previous contact with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of information about the project.