( ) The path (with a capital P) is the course followed or site occupied by the figure object with respect to the Ground object. 1 The thesis focuses on translational motion, therefore the self-contained motion will not be further discussed. 2 Short lists of English motion verbs are also in levin (1993, 263). For her, English motion verbs are of six kinds: Verbs of Inherently directed Motion, leave verbs, manner of Motion Verbs, verbs of Motion Using a vehicle, waltz verbs, Chase verbs, Accompany verbs; for more information see levin 1993). 8 9 Motion (with a capital M) refers to the presence per se in the event of motion or location. (Talmy 1985, 61) Apart homework from the four above stated semantic components, which are collectively called internal, talmy (2000, 25) claims that the motion event can be supplemented with external components, namely co-event. The term co-event can be either a manner or a cause of the motion. The manner is a commonly used term in Talmy s typology and yet Talmy gives no precise definition of this concept.
An extensive list of motion verbs can be found only in dictionaries. The Original Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (Roget 1989, 154) offers a list of English motion verbs. 2 A nice list of czech motion verbs is presented in tezaurus jazyka českého (Klégr 2007, 152). 1.3 Motion event In his early paper, lexicalization Patterns, talmy (1985, 60) defines Motion event quite broadly as a situation containing movement or the maintenance of a stationary location. To use linguistic terminology, talmy argues that a motion event consists of four basic semantic components,. Figure, ground, motion and Path. The event is defined as follows: Object (the figure) moving or located with respect to another object (the reference object or Ground ).
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Before i proceed to the discussion of this question, i have to introduce the basic linguistic terminology used in the description of motion verbs. 1.1 Motion Motion is a topic widely discussed in different disciplines, such as physics, philosophy, psychology or linguistics. As Filipović (2007, 1) states, motion is one of the primary experiential domains in human life and therefore bound to be lexicalized in all languages. First of all, let me present how motion is defined in general. In Collins English Dictionary, the following definition is provided: motion is the process of continual change in the physical position of an object. Similarly, frawley (1992, 171) states that motion entails the displacement of some entity, or positional change. According to římalová (2010, 20 the ability to move is not only natural to every animal and human being, but also inanimate entities can be moved by various kinds of physical forces.
7 8 Talmy (2000, 35) essay distinguishes between two kinds of motion, namely translational motion and self-contained motion. 1 The term translational motion refers to the situations in which an object s basic location shifts from one point to another in space as illustrated in (4 (4) The boy ran out of the house. (Talmy 1985, 103) The boy has changed his location. First, he was located in the position a inside the house, then he moved to the position b outside the house. On the other hand, the term self-contained motion has been applied to situations in which an object keeps its same basic, or average location. It generally consists of oscillation, rotation, dilation, wiggle, local wander or rest (Talmy 2000, 35). 1.2 Motion Verbs in Dictionaries As stated by Frawley (1992, 145 motion is an event, which is typically encoded as verb, hence motion verb.
From English into czech. Although this book is originally wordless, salt Software (2009) provides an English story script which corresponds with the story illustrations. 6 7 1 Lexicalization Patterns Traditionally, the typological classification of languages is concerned with morphology. Crystal (1987, 292) states that in the early 19 th century august Schlegel ( ) divided world languages into four groups, on the basis of the way a language constructs its words, as illustrated in (3) below: (3). Isolating, analytic, or root languages.
Inflecting, synthetic, or fusional languages. Agglutinative or agglutinating languages. Polysynthetic or incorporating languages. (Crystal 1987, 292) Talmy s typology (1985, 2000) is, however, based on semantics. Talmy (1985, 59) focuses on the lexicalization of Motion events across languages, lexicalization is involved where a particular meaning component is found to be in regular association with a particular morpheme. In the case of motion verbs, the question is whether the meaning component called Path is encoded in the verb root or what Talmy calls a satellite.
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This thesis is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The first part, which presents the expression of Motion events, described in the linguistics literature, serves as a basis for the subsequent analysis. Chapter 1 defines the terms Motion, motion verbs and Motion event, introduces Talmy s typology and discusses its shortcomings. Chapter 2 examines Motion events in narrative. In Chapter 3, motion events and translation are taken into consideration. The theoretical part concentrates only on the literal meaning of Motion verbs and does not take into account the figurative one. The practical part presents an analysis of the students translations of mayer s (1969) picture dark book frog, where are you?
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the expression of Motion events in two satellite-framed languages, English sahib and czech. Both czech and English belong to the Indo-european language family, but they are embodied in different language branches. English is a germanic language, while czech is a slavic language (Cruse 1987, 295). Surprisingly, to date, there have been no controlled studies which compare the encoding of Motion events in English and czech. Especially, there were no studies presenting an analysis of czech data. This study aims to contribute to the growing area of research by exploring the similarities and differences as to encoding motion in these two languages. The main research question is: How does the morphological structure of the expressions of Motion events influence the semantic one? In other words, are there any restrictions in czech, stemming from the fact that the satellite is a bound morpheme?
can describe the same situation in different ways. This is due to the fact that each language provides a limited set of options for the grammatical encoding of characteristics of objects and events. Furthermore, slobin (1997, 459) claims that Satellite-framed languages have much larger lexicons of Manner of motion verbs than Verb-framed languages and maintains that these manner verb lexicons of Satellite-framed languages seem to be two-tiered. The first tier is characterized by verbs used in ordinary everyday speech, such as (1) walk, run, jump; the second one contains more elaborated verbs like (2) slither, scramble, dash. While talmy (1985, 75) divides languages into satellite-framed and Verb-framed, Slobin (2004, 2) suggests that it is more useful to rank languages on a cline of Manner salience than to allocate them to one of several distinct typological categories. 5 6 Recently, most of the researchers who have shown an increased interest in the dichotomy postulated by talmy have studied mainly the differences between two typologically opposite languages, such as English and Spanish, however, filipović (1999, 2007) implies that there are also noticeable differences. She (1999) conducted research into the expression of Motion events in two satellite-framed languages, English and Serbo- croatian, and concludes that in English the manner of motion is expressed without restraint, however, the satellites in Serbo-Croatian (i.e. Prefixes) restrict the coding of the manner in the verb root.
Leonard Talmy was the first to pdf have made a substantial contribution by introducing his Lexicalization patterns of Motion events which inspired a vast number of linguists and scholars all over the world. They started to elaborate his semantic typology and added data from many languages. Talmy (1985, 75) claims that world languages can be classified into two groups with regard to the motion verbs, namely verb-framed languages and Satellite-framed languages, in terms of where the core or the path of motion in the verb is encoded. The former are languages such as Spanish, French and Portuguese which encode the path in the verb root, leaving the manner of motion to be expressed either by adjunct or not at all. In contrast, the latter are languages such as English or czech in which the path of motion is encoded in verb s accompanying satellites (e.g. Particles, prefixes leaving the manner of motion to be expressed in the verb root. Slobin was the first one who started to build upon Talmy s typology.
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1 univerzita palackéhlomouci filozofická fakulta katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky the Expression of Motion good events in English and czech (bakalářská práce) Olomouc 2016 Petra šimoníková 2 The Expression of Motion events in English and czech (bakalářská práce) Autor: Petra šimoníková studijní obor: Anglická filologie německá filologie. Počet stran: 82 počet znaků: (bez příloh) Olomouc 2016 Prohlašuji, že jsem tuto bakalářskou práci vypracovala samostatně a uvedla úplný seznam citované a použité literatury. V olomouci dne podpis 3 Člověk poznává sám sebe, když zápasí s překážkami. Antoine de saint-Exupéry ráda bych poděkovala paní Mgr. Za její cenné rady a trpělivost při vedení této bakalářské práce. 4 Table of Contents theoretical part introduction 5 1 Lexicalization Patterns Motion Motion Verbs in Dictionaries Motion event Theme or Figure source and goal cause Other Semantic Elements Talmys Typology satellite-framed. Verb-framed Shortcomings of Talmy s Typology 15 2 Typology of Motion events in Narrative manner of Motion Manner-Silence Cline Alternative expressions of Manner Path of Motion 24 3 Typology of Motion events and Translation 29 practical part 33 4 Metodology participants Materials Procedure.