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Ecowas has recorded limited success in the area of infrastructural development. L 50 The coastal highway and the sahelian highway have attained a high realization rate. . Studies have been initiated for a regional railway master plan. . ecowas is cooperating with cemac under the yamoussoukro decision to increase air transport activities with the principal support of the world Bank and the european Union. Li 51 The 30 th Ordinary summit of the heads of States and government in  January 2006 adopted decisions aimed at deepening and accelerating the integration process of ecowas. . It promises to enhance the supranational powers of the organization and, in effect, introduce a new legal regime.

Xliv 44 Genuine attempts at implementation are also undercut by other measures. . On the issue of free movement of persons, at its 23 rd session in may 2000, the ahsg essay adopted and launched the ecowas passport in consecration of the ecowas citizenship. Xlv 45 The passport is to be introduced in the member States and the national passports are to be phased out in five years. . At last count only benin and Senegal have introduced the ecowas passport. Xlvi 46 Also even though visas have been abolished for nationals of Member States, there are a large number of checkpoints which remain a constant source of harassment for ecowas travelers. Xlvii 47 The pre-eminent objective of creating a common market has not fared any better. . In pursuance of this objective, the community adopted a trade liberalization scheme aimed at the elimination of custom duties and taxes of equivalent effect on imports of ecowas origin since 1981 and the abolition of non-tariff barriers to intra-ecowas trade by may 28, 1985. Xlviii 48 The ecowas fund for cooperation; Compensation and development was established to make compensation for loss of customs revenue under the liberalization scheme. . The most recent report of the Executive secretary of ecowas states that: xlix 49 Regrettably the Executive secretariat continues to receive complaints from Member States and economic operators about cases of refusal or failure to implement the scheme. . Indeed it is a fact that Member States still maintain non-tariff barriers such as bans and the requirement of special permits, against products of ecowas origin.

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Xxxvi 36 The revised Treaty placed on the Executive secretary the responsibility to plan publish all decisions of the ahsg as well as the regulations of the com, 30days after the date of signature. Xxxvii 37 Such decisions and regulations automatically enter into force 60 days after the date of their publication in the Official journal of the community. Xxxviii 38 The Treaty also requires each Member State to publish the decisions and regulations in their national Official gazette within 30 days of their signature. Xxxix 39 In addition to the decisions and regulations defined in the Treaty, other secondary legislation come in the form of resolutions, recommendations and declarations. Xl 40 Such legislation do not become binding until they are issued as decisions or regulations. Xli 41 The revised Treaty recognized the penchant of the member States to enter into international agreements with both member States and non-member states. However, the Treaty requires member states to avoid obligations that are incompatible with their obligations under the ecowas treaty and to adopt common positions when dealing with non-member states and other international or regional organizations. Xlii 42 Thirteen years after the revised Treaty, the most significant results of ecowas have been those concerning organizational matters such as the rafting of protocols and conduct of studies. Xliii 43 The implementation of treaty obligations, however leave a lot to be desired.

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Xxvii 27 The revised Treaty also identified the ecowas as ultimately the sole economic community in the region for the purpose of economic integration and the pillar for the realization of the African Economic Community. Xxviii 28 In addition, the Treaty provided for certain fundamental principles, among them, the promotion and consolidation of a democratic system of governance in the member States. Xxix 29 The revised Treaty, established, additional community institutions, namely, the community parliament, xxx 30 the Economic and Social council xxxi 31 and the Arbitration Tribunal. Xxxii treaty community Tribunal was transformed into a full-fledged Community court of Justice. Xxxiii 33 The revised Treaty further defined the nature of community legislation. . The ahsg was described to act by decisions while the com has to  act by regulations. Decisions of the ahsg  are  binding on the member States and all community institutions. Xxxiv 34 Regulations of the com are binding on all subordinate community institutions and bind Member States only upon their approval by the ahsg. Xxxv 35 Decisions and regulations shall be adopted depending on the subject matter under consideration by unanimity, consensus or two-thirds majority.

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Xix 19 Significantly, there are linguistic barriers inherited from the colonial era. Nine of the countries are Francophone, five are Anglophone and two are lusophone. Xx 20 Added to this, was the deliberate pull of the metropolitan countries away from ecowas. Xxi 21 For example, as the idea of ecowas learning was gaining ground, France encouraged the Francophone west African States to transform a moribund regional organization into the communaute desk Economique de lAfrique de lOuest (ceao) with similar objectives as ecowas. Xxii 22 Similarly, the negotiations to revise the ecowas treaty in coincided with the emergence of the Francophones new union, the Union Economique et Monetaire de lOuest Afrique (uemoa which was externally guaranteed by France. Xxiii treaty had envisaged the establishment of a common market in fifteen years. Xxiv 24 given the many logistical, infra-structural, financial and political obstacles and problems, this was not realistic. .

In the end, the much anticipated increase in intra-regional trade did not materialize and the many Protocols for the elimination of trade barriers were not honored. . In short, most economic activity in the region was unaffected by the organization and its goals. Xxv 25 Expectedly, in 1993, the Treaty was revised to rationalize the aims and objectives of the community and to improve upon the limitations of the past. Xxvi 26 The revised Treaty clarified the aims and objectives of the community. . In particular, it emphasized the establishment of an economic union through the adoption of common policies in the economic, financial, social and cultural sectors and the creation of a monetary union.

Ix 9 to carry out these aims, the Treaty created the following institutions: (a)   the authority of heads of State and government (ahsg   the principal governing  institution of the community whose decisions and directives hall be binding on all Community Institutions;. It is the responsibility of the com to keep  under review the functioning and development of the community and to make recommendations to the ahsg on matters of policy aimed at the efficient and harmonious functioning and development of the community. Xi 11 (c)   the Executive secretariat which is headed by an Executive secretary who is the principal executive officer of the community. . The Executive secretary and other officers of the secretariat, in the discharge of their duties, owe their loyalty entirely to the community. Xii 12 In addition to these community institutions, the 1975 Treaty established four technical and specialized Commissions in these fields: Trade customs, immigration, monetary and payments; Industry, agriculture and natural resources; Transport, telecommunications and energy and Social and cultural affairs.

Xiii 13 Each Commission shall have a representative of a member State and any number of advisors. Xiv 14 The Treaty also established the office of an External Auditor xv 15 and a tribunal of the community. Xvi 16 The latter was charged with the responsibility of settling disputes among member states regarding the interpretation or application of the Treaty that could not be settled amicably by direct agreement. Xvii 17 What the Treaty wrought in 1975 was a grouping of sixteen countries of uneven size, with Nigeria providing over 65 per cent of the population and trade. . Ghana, senegal and Cote divoire provided a further 20 percent while the remaining twelve countries provided 15 per cent among them. Xviii 18 The political geography of ecowas also dictated that it was a grouping of coastal and landlocked countries, with the latter countries depending on the former partners for transport services and trade.

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The treaty establishing the ecowas vi 6 was signed in Lagos, nigeria on may 28 th 1975 by the heads of paperless States and government of 14 West African nations, namely benin, burkina faso, cote divoire, gambia, ghana, guinea, liberia, mali, mauritania, niger, nigeria, senegal, sierra. guinea bissau acceded to the Treaty later in 1975. . In 1979, cape verde became the 16 th member nation. . In accordance with the terms of the treaty, the treaty came into force in June 1975 with the ratification by seven states. Vii 7 Article 2(1) of the 1975 Treaty described the aims of the community as follows. To promote co-operation and development in all fields of economic activity particularly in the fields of industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources, commerce, monetary and financial questions and in social and cultural matters for the purpose of raising the standard of living of its. Viii 8 Article2(2) of this Treaty explains that the community shall by stages ensure (emphasis mine (a) shakespeare the elimination as between the member States of customs duties and other charges of equivalent effect in respect of the importation and exportation of goods; (b) the abolition.

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Sectoral Analysis writing of ecowas, sectoral Analysis of cemac, conflict Prevention, peace and Security Issues. Bibliographic Works, Indices, Charts and Other. Reference aids, efforts at regional and sub-regional integration in Africa go back to the immediate post colonial period. I 1, it was seen as an extension of the liberation movements and an effort to construct geographic entities that were economically viable and politically united. Ii 2 It also reflected the prevailing European experience with its emphasis on free trade within a common external tariff area. Iii 3 Regional or sub-regional integration in Africa has met with limited success on account of several factors. . Chief among them are the parallel and often competing groupings iv 4 that divert the needed political will to succeed; the conflict with the developmental objectives and expectations of their development partners, usually the former colonial masters or their associated groupings; conflict between national structures. V 5 The promise that integration holds, in the form of the enlargement of local markets, the realization of economies of scale and the strengthening of bargaining positions in global negotiations is a sufficient allure to make the countries of Africa try time and again. Ecowas, the Economic Community of West African States and cemac, the communaute Economique et Monetaire de lAfrique centrale represent two major efforts at regional integration in Africa.

(ecowas). Communaute Economique et Monetaire de lAfrique. Centrale   (cemac bibliography of ecowas and cemac, compilation of treaties, protocols and conventions of ecowas. Compilation of treaties, protocols, conventions. Cemac, compilations of ecowas regulations, decisions and directives, compilations of cemac basic acts, regulations and basic regulations, significant treaties and organic texts, treatises, books and reports on African regional integration. Treatises, books, and reports on ecowas. Treatises, books, and reports on cemac.

Librarian and Adjunct Associate Professor of Law at Fordham Law School, where he teaches International Investment Law, multinational Corporations Law and. International and Foreign Legal Research. He was formerly law Lecturer (on. National Service) at the University of Ghana, legon and the University of Jos, nigeria. He was also a consultant to the unctc in New York and a legal. Assistant to the Iran-us claims Tribunal at The hague, the netherlands. He was admitted to the Ghana bar in 1977. He is currently a member of the bars of New.

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The salis Lab at Penn State University. Synthetic biology homework has a scaling Problem. When we engineer an organism, there are an astronomical number of design choices (different dna sequences but only a tiny fraction will produce a high-performance, economically viable organism. Modern Synthetic biology requires model-based predictions and sophisticated computational design methodologies to build only the most optimal designs. The salis Lab is at the fore-front, building a modern Synthetic biology engineering discipline that expands the breadth of applications and eliminates trial-and-error. Let's build it together. howard Salis 7200, registered Users 300000, sequences Designed 320, universities 53, countries 20, industrial Licensees 7, undergraduate courses). Regional Trade Agreements in Africa: a historical and Bibliographic Account of ecowas and cemac by victor Essien, victor Essien holds. He is International Law.

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