Iraq War edit In March 2003, during Operation Iraqi Freedom, an S-3b viking from sea control Squadron 38 (The "Red Griffins piloted by richard McGrath. Launched from uss constellation (CV-64). The crew successfully executed a essay time sensitive strike and fired a laser-guided maverick missile to neutralize a significant Iraqi naval and leadership target in the port city of Basra, iraq. This was one of the few times in its operational history that the s-3b viking had been employed overland on an offensive combat air strike and the first time it launched a laser-guided maverick missile in combat. On, us president george. Bush flew in the co-pilot seat of a vs-35 viking from nas north Island, california, to uss abraham Lincoln off the california coast. There, he delivered his " Mission Accomplished " speech announcing the end of major combat in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The pacific Fleet squadron, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron evernote five (VQ-5 the "sea shadows was originally based at the former nas agana, guam but later relocated to nas north Island in San diego, california, with the pacific Fleet S-3 viking squadrons when nas agana closed. The Atlantic Fleet squadron, the vq-6 "Black ravens were originally based with all Atlantic Fleet S-3 vikings at the former nas cecil field in Jacksonville, florida, but later moved to nas jacksonville, approximately 10 miles (16 km) to the east, when nas cecil field was closed. After the retirement of the ka-6D the s-3B became the main aerial refueling aircraft The es-3A operated primarily with carrier battle groups, providing organic 'Indications and Warning' support to the group and joint theater commanders. In addition to their warning and reconnaissance roles, and their extraordinarily stable handling characteristics and range, shadows were a preferred recovery tanker (aircraft that provide refueling for returning aircraft). They averaged over 100 flight hours per month while deployed. Excessive utilization caused earlier than expected equipment replacement when naval aviation funds were limited, making them an easy target for budget-driven decision makers. In 1999, both es-3A squadrons and all 16 aircraft were decommissioned and the es-3A inventory placed in Aerospace maintenance and Regeneration Group (amarg) storage at davis-Monthan afb, arizona.
The maverick Plus System (MPS) added the capability to employ the agm-65E laser-guided or agm-65F infrared-guided air-to-surface missile, and the agm-84H/K Stand-off Land Attack missile Expanded Response (slam/ER). The slam/er is a gps/inertial/infrared guided cruise missile derived from the agm-84 Harpoon that can be controlled by the aircrew in the terminal phase of flight if an aww-13 data link pod is carried by the aircraft. 5 The s-3B saw extensive service during the 1991 Gulf War, performing attack, tanker, and elint duties, and launching adm-141 tald decoys. This was the first time an S-3B was employed overland during an offensive air strike. The first mission occurred when an aircraft from vs-24, from the uss theodore roosevelt (cvn-71), attacked an Iraqi silkworm missile site. The aircraft also participated in the yugoslav wars in the 1990s and in Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001. The first es-3A was delivered in 1991, entering service after two years of testing. The navy established two squadrons of eight es-3a aircraft each in both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets to provide detachments of typically two aircraft, ten officers, and 55 enlisted aircrew, maintenance and support personnel (which comprised/supported four complete aircrews) to deploying carrier air wings.
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Starting in 1987, some s-3As were for upgraded to s-3B standard with the answer addition of a number of new sensors, avionics, and weapons systems, including the capability to launch the agm-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile. The s-3B could also be fitted with " buddy stores external fuel tanks that allowed the viking to refuel other aircraft. In July 1988, vs-30 became the first fleet squadron to receive the enhanced capability harpoon/isar equipped S-3B, based at nas cecil field in Jacksonville, florida. 16 S-3As were converted to es-3A Shadow s for carrier-based electronic intelligence (elint) duties. Six aircraft, designated us-3a, were converted for a specialized utility and limited cargo cod requirement.
5 Plans were also made to develop the ks-3A carrier-based tanker aircraft, but this program was ultimately cancelled after the conversion of just one early development S-3A. 13 With the collapse of the soviet Union and the breakup of the warsaw Pact, the soviet-Russian submarine threat was perceived as much reduced, and the vikings had the majority of their antisubmarine warfare equipment removed. The aircraft's mission subsequently changed to sea surface search, sea and ground attack, over-the-horizon targeting, and aircraft refueling. 5 As a result, the s-3B after 1997 was typically crewed by one pilot and one copilot nfo; the additional seats in the s-3B could still support additional crew members for certain missions. To reflect these new missions the viking squadrons were redesignated from "Air Antisubmarine warfare Squadrons" to "sea control Squadrons." Prior to the aircraft's retirement from front-line fleet use aboard us aircraft carriers, a number of upgrade programs were implemented. These include the carrier Airborne Inertial navigation System ii (cains ii) upgrade, which replaced older inertial navigation hardware with ring laser gyroscopes with a honeywell egi (Enhanced gps inertial navigation System) and added digital electronic flight instruments (EFI).
Beginning with the s-3, all sensor systems were integrated through a single general Purpose digital Computer (gpdc). Each crew station had its own display, the co-pilot/cotac, tacco and senso displays were multi-purpose displays (MPD) capable of displaying data from any of a number of systems. This new level of integration allowed the crew to consult with each other by examining the same data at multiple stations simultaneously, to manage workload by assigning responsibility for a given sensor from one station to another, and to easily combine clues from each sensor. Because of this, the four-man S-3 was considered roughly equivalent in capability to the much larger P-3 with a crew. The aircraft has two underwing hardpoints that can be used to carry fuel tanks, general purpose and cluster bombs, missiles, rockets, and storage pods.
It also has four internal bomb bay stations that can be used to carry general purpose bombs, aerial torpedoes, and special stores (B57 and B61 nuclear weapons). Fifty-nine sonobuoy chutes are fitted, as well as a dedicated search and Rescue (SAR) chute. The s-3 is fitted with the ale-39 countermeasure system and can carry up to 90 rounds of chaff, flares, and expendable jammers (or a combination of all) in three dispensers. A retractable magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) boom is fitted in the tail. In the late 1990s, the s-3B's role was changed from anti-submarine warfare (ASW) to anti-surface warfare (asuw). At that time, the mad boom was removed, along with several hundred pounds of submarine detection electronics. With no remaining sonobuoy processing capability, most of the sonobuoy chutes were faired over with a blanking plate. Operational history edit The s-3A replaced the aging S-2 Tracker in 1975 On 20 February 1974, the s-3A officially became operational with the air Antisubmarine Squadron forty-one (VS-41), the "Shamrocks at nas north Island, california, which served as the initial S-3 Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS). The first operational cruise of the s-3A took place in 1975 with the vs-21 "Fighting Redtails" aboard uss john.
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The apu itself was started from a hydraulic accumulator by pulling a mechanical handle in the cockpit. The apu accumulator was fed from the primary hydraulic system, but could also be pumped up manually (with much effort) from the cockpit. Citation needed All crew members sit on forward-facing, upward-firing douglas Escapac zero-zero ejection the seats. In "group eject" mode, initiating ejection from either front seat ejects the entire crew in sequence, with the back seats ejecting.5 seconds before the front in order to provide safe separation. The rear seats are capable of self ejection, and the ejection sequence includes a pyrotechnic charge that stows the rear keyboard trays out of the occupants' way immediately before ejection. Safe ejection requires the seats to be weighted in pairs, and when flying with a single crewman in the back the unoccupied seat is fitted with ballast blocks. At the time it entered the fleet, the s-3 introduced an unprecedented level of systems integration. Previous asw aircraft like the lockheed P-3 Orion and S-3's predecessor, the Grumman S-2 Tracker, featured separate instrumentation and controls for each sensor system. Sensor operators often monitored paper traces, using mechanical calipers to make precise measurements and annotating data by writing on the scrolling paper.
In the tanking crew configuration, the s-3B typically flew with a pilot and co-pilot/cotac. 11 The wing is fitted with leading edge and Fowler flaps. Spoilers are fitted to both report the upper and the lower surfaces of the wings. All control surfaces are actuated by dual hydraulically boosted irreversible systems. In the event of dual hydraulic failures, an Emergency Flight Control System (efcs) permits manual control with greatly increased stick forces and reduced control authority. 12 Unlike many tactical jets which required ground service equipment, the s-3 was equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) and capable of unassisted starts. The aircraft's original apu could provide only minimal electric power and pressurized air for both aircraft cooling and for the engines' pneumatic starters. A newer, more powerful apu could provide full electrical service to the aircraft.
ordered. 6 The first prototype was flown on by military test pilot John Christiansen, 7 4 and the s-3 entered service in 1974. During the production run from 1974 to 1978, a total of 186 S-3As were built. The majority of the surviving S-3As were later upgraded to the s-3b variant, with sixteen aircraft converted into es-3A Shadow electronic intelligence (elint) collection aircraft. The s-3 is a conventional monoplane with a cantilever shoulder wing, 8 swept at an angle. The two ge tf-34 high-bypass turbofan engines mounted in nacelles under the wings provide excellent fuel efficiency, giving the viking the required long range and endurance, 9 while maintaining docile engine-out characteristics. 10 S-3A with extended mad-sensor The aircraft can seat four crew members, three officers and one enlisted aircrewman, with the pilot and the copilot/tactical coordinator (cotac) in the front of the cockpit and the tactical coordinator (tacco) and sensor operator (senso) in the back. Entry is by an entry door / ladder which folds out of the side of the fuselage. 9 When the aircraft's anti-submarine warfare (ASW) role ended in the late 1990s, the enlisted sensos were removed from the crew.
Several aircraft were flown. Air Test and evaluation Squadron Thirty vx-30 ) at, naval Base ventura county nas point Mugu, california, for range clearance and surveillance operations 2 on the navair point Mugu range until 2016, and one s-3 is operated by the national Aeronautics and Space Administration (. Nasa ) at the nasa, glenn Research Center. Contents, development edit ys-3A report prototype s-3 escape system testing In the mid-1960s, the. Navy developed the vsx (heavier-than-air, Anti-submarine, experimental) requirement for a replacement for the piston-engined Grumman S-2 Tracker as an anti-submarine aircraft to fly off the navy's aircraft carriers. In August 1968, a team led by lockheed and a convair / Grumman team were asked to further develop their proposals to meet this requirement. 3 Lockheed recognised that it had little recent experience in designing carrier based aircraft, so ling-Temco-vought (LTV) was brought into the team, being responsible for the folding wings and tail, the engine nacelles, and the landing gear, which was derived from ltv a-7 Corsair.
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Carrier-based anti-submarine and aerial refueling aircraft. The, lockheed S-3 viking is a four-seat, twin-engine turbofan -powered jet aircraft that was used by the,. Navy primarily for anti-submarine warfare. In the late 1990s, the s-3B's mission focus shifted to surface warfare and aerial refueling. The viking also provided electronic warfare and surface surveillance capabilities to the carrier battle group. A carrier-based, subsonic, all-weather, multi-mission aircraft with long range; it carried automated weapon systems, and was capable of extended missions with in-flight refueling. Because of the viking's engines' characteristic sound, it was nicknamed william the "hoover" after the vacuum cleaner brand. The s-3 was retired from front-line us navy fleet service aboard aircraft carriers in January 2009, with its missions being assumed by other platforms such as the. P-3C Orion, sikorsky sh-60 seahawk, and, boeing F/A-18E/f super Hornet.