Some interviewees thought the hippie role of alcohol in socialising outside work hours disadvantaged British Muslims, reducing their chances of promotion within certain occupations, though the extent to which this factor is important is unclear. Conclusion and recommendations, despite the under-representation in the top professions outlined above, some progress has been made over the last decade particularly in education. We should seek to reinforce this progress, and pursue integration strategies that promote the tangible economic and political benefits of integration, instead of merely considering integration in terms of values or even more harmfully, approaching integration efforts within the British Muslim community as a counter-extremism. Yet there is only so much that the government can. Progress needs to come from within Muslim communities as well, and the efforts of their organisations are set to become increasingly important. Boost access to social capital and professional networks. Much of the lack of representation of Muslims in the top professions is driven by factors that affect many other communities, including other ethnic minorities or the white working class, and reflect the overall challenges that Britain faces with respect to social mobility: government should. Change attitudes about Muslim women in the workplace. Cultural attitudes within the British Muslim community regarding the role of women in the home and workplace contribute to under-representation: The next generation of young Muslims needs to lead the way in shifting attitudes, with the support of key institutions and organisations within the muslim.
This lack of higher level English skills can be found across socio-economically disadvantaged groups of any religion or ethnicity. However, this barrier may be compounded within the British Muslim community, where language barriers in employment and education are more common. Poor course choice at A-level and university appears to be contributing to a relative lack of representation in the best universities: Oxbridge and the russell Group. Our research suggests that this could in part be driven by a lack of understanding of the uk education system, employment landscape and what is required to reach top professions among parents. British Muslims are disproportionately likely to experience poverty, which impacts on their representation in the top professions. Because of their poverty and recent migrant status often young British Muslims lack the networks, social capital and soft skills that can facilitate access to top professions. Workplace drivers, discrimination in recruitment processes and the stereotype threat may disadvantage British Muslims in the labour market.
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This suggests that cultural factors may be more important than purely religious and factors in creating attitudinal barriers towards womens position in the labour market. It should be further noted that even if Muslim women were employed in the top professions at the same rate as Muslim men, British Muslims would still be the most under-represented religious group by a considerable margin. Causes of under-representation, there are demographic features of the muslim population that help to explain their under-representation in top professions: Muslims in England and Wales are more likely than other religious groups to be recent migrants, and recent migrants often tend to suffer poorer outcomes. Muslims in England and Wales tend to be younger, and thus are naturally under-represented in top professional positions, many of which are associated with older workers. In addition to these demographic factors, our research found attitudinal, educational, socio-economic and workplace drivers.
Attitudinal drivers, cultural attitudes towards limiting the role of women in the labour market are not unique to British Muslims, but are prevalent, and may be constraining the overall labour market position of British Muslims. However, there is evidence that these attitudes are changing generationally. Within the British Muslim population, there appears to be an aversion to travelling away from the local community to attend university. This limits choice and the opportunity to develop soft skills and networks. Other factors such as financial considerations also play a role in this. Educational drivers, in England and Wales, pakistanis and Bangladeshis are less likely than the rest of the population to achieve the top grades at A-level that are required by top universities, despite important educational advances particularly at gcse level being made in recent years. There is evidence to suggest that one cause of poor attainment at A-level, and indeed poor labour market outcomes in general, is insufficient written English skills.
Cultural, ethnic and socio-economic diversity within the muslim community must be noted, but data sources often do not allow for fine-grained analysis of these differences. Similarly, national-level education data are often not categorised by religious group. In our educational analysis, we have instead looked at the educational outcomes of the two ethnic groups that account for the largest number of Britains Muslims British Bangladeshis and British pakistanis. Our findings are summarised below with these caveats in mind. Findings, analysis of the census and, labour Force survey suggests that Muslims are under-represented in top professions in England and Wales compared with other religious groups and non-religious Britons. Our definition of top professions includes the top two national Statistics Socio-economic Classification (ns-sec) classifications: higher managerial and professional occupations and lower managerial, administrate and professional occupations: Analysis of the highest ns-sec category higher managerial and professional occupations shows that British Muslims are the least.
Combining higher managerial and professional occupations with the next highest category, lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations, we find that Muslims in England and Wales are half as likely to be represented in these top professions: 16 per cent of Muslims are classified as being. The only other religious group that fell below the average in England and Wales were sikhs, of whom 25 per cent were classified as being in top professions. Comparison of the 2001 Census and the 2011 Census reveals a slow rate of growth of representation among Muslims in England and Wales. With the exception of Buddhists, muslims had the slowest rate of growth in top profession representation, with only a 1 percentage point increase in those reporting a top profession category job, compared with a 4 percentage point increase for sikhs, a 4 percentage point increase. Muslims in England and Wales are also disproportionately likely to be unemployed and economically inactive. There is also a notable gender gap. Out of all Muslims in top professions in England and Wales, only 40 per cent are women compared with 60 per cent who are men. This gender gap within the muslim community is larger than for any other religious group. However, it is only slightly larger than the gap seen among British Hindus and interestingly those who selected no religion.
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Shared values must go hand in hand with socio-economic integration and equality of opportunity. In this report, demos presents research findings on the extent to which British Muslims are under-represented in the top professions, examines why this might be the case, and makes recommendations for how the gap can be narrowed. The research presented in this report is based on an extensive review of the existing academic literature, national data from the 20 censuses, and. Labour Force survey, higher Education Statistics Agency (hesa) and Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (ucas) data. This was further supplemented by data drawn from schools, universities and local gpa authorities in East London specifically tower Hamlets and Newham, the two local authorities with the highest percentage of Muslim residents in the uk: 35 per cent and 32 per cent respectively in 2011. We conducted interviews with key stakeholders from local government, schools, universities, the third sector and businesses, and undertook focus groups with British Muslims from each stage of the journey into the top professions: sixth formers from Newham and Tower Hamlets, students from a range. It is important to be aware of the limitations that exist when presenting essay data on a group as diverse as the British Muslim community.
Opening address ucl judicial Institute launch, london (november 2010). Keynote Address conference of International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution, new York (January 2010). Keynote Address - canadian Bar Association Conference, toronto (november 2009). Executive summary, over recent years, conversations about integration have often been presented as debates over whether or not certain ethnic or religious groups believe in British values. In much of the media and our public discourse, british Muslims are most frequently discussed in this context. Yet, an arguably more book important lens through which to examine integration is that of labour market success. A successfully integrated society is one in which all ethnic or religious groups are more or less equally represented in positions of power in society.
lecture 2012, University of Michigan (September 2012). Keynote Address American Bar Association Conference for deans of us law Schools, seattle, us (January 2012). Bracton Lecture, exeter University, (november 2011). Keynote Address Association Corporate counsel Conference, berlin (may, 2011). Keynote Address lawWithoutWalls, Inaugural event, london (January 2011).
By way of example, as well as many keynotes at law firm partnership conferences, the following are some of the recent lectures he has given: keynote Address - american Bar Association, national Summit, Stanford University (may, 2015). Plenary lecture, global Law Summit, london (February, 2015). Richard davies Memorial Lecture, london (november, 2014). Keynote Address - executive lawyers' Thought Forum, macau (Oct 2014). Keynote Address - a celebration of Web Science, london (June 2014). Keynote Address - reinvent Law, new York (Feb 2014). Larry hoffman Distinguished Lecture, miami law (Oct 2013).
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Richard currently makes presentations (mainly keynote speeches) at about 100 conferences, seminars, retreats or other events each year and book has been invited to lecture in more than 40 countries around the world. Inquiries as to his availability and rates can be made by e-mail. Richard has addressed audiences (in person and electronically numbering more than 250,000. He has organized various international conferences, is a regular conference chairman and gives numerous major keynote addresses each year. When unable to attend in person, richard regularly delivers his talks by video link, or on pre-recorded video or dvd, or as a multi-media e-learning presentation. He is also frequently invited to act as a facilitator and chairman of meetings. His speaking subjects include the future of law and legal services, the future of professional service, trends in it and the Internet, strategy and business planning, the future of government, the future of education, it strategy for major organizations, knowledge management, and e-business. Read more about Richards speaking engagements.