38 In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter. 39 Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line. 40 The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences. 41 Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar ) best which ensured a rhythm. 42 Classical Chinese poetics, based on the tone system of Middle Chinese, recognized two kinds of tones: the level ( píng ) tone and the oblique ( zè ) tones, a category consisting of the rising ( sháng ) tone, the departing ( qù ). Certain forms of poetry placed contraints on which syllables were required to be level and which oblique. The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry.
Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents, syllables, or moras, depending on how hazlitt rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches. Japanese is a mora -timed language. Syllable-timed languages include latin, catalan, french, leonese, galician and Spanish. English, russian and, generally, german are stress-timed languages. 36 Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. Languages can rely on either pitch, such as in Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek, or tone. Tonal languages include Chinese, vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages. 37 Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided ).
32 The early 21st century poetic tradition appears to continue to strongly orient itself to earlier precursor poetic traditions such as those initiated by Whitman, Emerson, and Wordsworth. The literary critic geoffrey hartman has used the phrase "the anxiety of demand" to describe contemporary response to older poetic traditions as "being fearful that the fact no longer has a form building on a trope introduced by Emerson. Emerson had maintained that in the debate concerning poetic structure where either "form" or "fact" could predominate, that one need simply "Ask the fact for the form." This has been challenged at various levels by other literary scholars such as Bloom who has stated. Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related. 34 Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter. 35 Rhythm edit main articles: Timing (linguistics), tone (linguistics), and Pitch accent The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions.
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This approach remained influential into the 20th century. 25 During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. 26 In addition to a boom in translation, during the romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. 27 20th-century and 21st-century disputes edit some 20th-century literary theorists, relying less on the opposition of prose and poetry, focused on the poet as values simply one who creates using language, and poetry as what the poet creates. 28 The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon, and some modernist poets essentially do not distinguish between the creation of a poem with words, and creative acts in other media. Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided. 29 The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose, particularly given examples.
Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose, although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non- metrical means. While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure, this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses vayner as on the revival of older forms and structures. 30 Recently, postmodernism has come to convey more completely prose and poetry as distinct entities, and also among genres of poetry, as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet, to emphasize the role of the reader of a text ( Hermeneutics and to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read. 31 Today, throughout the world, poetry often incorporates poetic form and diction from other cultures and from the past, further confounding attempts at definition and classification that were once sensible within a tradition such as the western canon.
The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics. 15 The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in " poetics "—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. 16 Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing ( Classic of poetry developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. 17 More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury tales and Matsuo bashō 's oku no hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap. 18 Western traditions edit Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry.
Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle 's poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre. 19 Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. 20 Aristotle's work was influential throughout the middle east during the Islamic Golden Age, 21 as well as in Europe during the renaissance. 22 Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to prose, which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure. 23 This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John keats termed this escape from logic " Negative capability ". 24 This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic.
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Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul main articles: History of poetry william and Literary theory some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy. 9 Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. 10 The oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium bce in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq and was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, on papyrus. 11 A tablet dating. . 2000 bce describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity; it is considered the world's oldest love poem. 12 13 An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe (c. An early Chinese poetics, the Kǒngzǐ Shīlùn discussing the Shijing ( Classic of poetry ) Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey ; the avestan books, the gathic avesta and the yasna ; the roman national epic, virgil 's. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the gathas, and the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies. 10 14 Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs.
of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, goethe, mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter ; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, 6 playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. 7 8 In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Contents History edit The oldest love poem. Sumerian terracotta tablet from Nippur, Iraq. Ur iii period, bce.
Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century bc, while the. Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the. Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in, sumerian. Early poems in the eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such reviews as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the sanskrit Vedas, zoroastrian Gathas, and the homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle 's poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects.
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Form of literature, this article is about the art form. For other uses, see. "Poem "Poems and "Poetic" redirect here. Poem (disambiguation), poems (disambiguation), and, poetic (disambiguation). Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the. Greek term, poiesis, "making is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic 1 2 3 qualities of language —such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre —to evoke good meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, and panegyric and elegiac court poetry were developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the nile, niger and Volta river valleys. Some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the.