18 39 The lean startup principles are also taught in classes at Harvard Business School and uc berkeley and are implemented in municipal governments through Code for America. 12 In addition, the United States government has recently begun to employ lean startup ideas. The federal Chief Information Officer of the United States, steven Vanroekel noted that he is taking a "lean-startup approach to government." 40 ries has also worked with the former and current Chief Technology Officers of the United States — aneesh Chopra and Todd Park respectively—to. 41 42 In particular, park noted that in order to understand customer demand, the department of health and Human Services, recognized "the need to rapidly prototype solutions, engage customers in those solutions as soon as possible, and then quickly and repeatedly iterate those solutions based. 45 lean concepts edit lean startup principles have been applied to specific competencies within typical startups and larger organizations: 17 Criticism edit ben Horowitz, the co-founder of venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, wrote an article in 2010 criticizing the lean startup method for over-emphasizing "running. He specifically disagreed with portraying "running lean" as an end rather than a means to winning the market without running out of cash. Horowitz gave as an example his startup loudcloud, which by "running fat" was able to outperform 20 direct competitors and after 8 years reach a value.6 billion. 46 However, at least since 2008, numerous advocates of lean methods have pointed out that "running lean" does not mean cost cutting. Trey griffith, the vp of technology paper at Teleborder, stated in 2012 that the majority of backing for the lean startup methodology was anecdotal and had not been rigorously validated when first presented.
31 The movement edit ries and others created an annual technology conference called Startup Lessons learned which has subsequently changed its name to the lean Startup Conference. 32 lean startup meetups in cities around the world have garnered 20,000 regular participants. 6 The first lean startup meetup named lean Startup Circle was created by rich Collins on June 26, 2009 33 hosting speaking events, workshops, and roundtable discussions. As of 2012, there are lean startup meetups in over 100 cities and 17 countries as well as an online discussion forum with over 5500 members. 34 Third-party organizers have led lean startup meetups in San Francisco, chicago, boston, austin, beijing, dublin, and rio de janeiro, among others—many of which are personally attended by ries—with the Chicago and New York city lean Startup meetups attracting over 4,000 members each. 35 The lean Startup Machine created a new spin on the lean startup meetups by having attendees start a new company in three days., the lean Startup Machine claimed to have created over 600 new startups this way. 37 several prominent high-tech companies have begun to publicly employ the lean startup methodology, including Intuit, dropbox, wealthfront, votizen, aardvark, and Grockit.
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1 Three years later, Groupon would grow into a professional billion dollar business. Steve blank defines a pivot as "changing (or even firing) the plan instead of the executive (the sales exec, marketing or even the ceo)." 25 26 Innovation accounting edit This topic focuses on how entrepreneurs can maintain accountability and maximize outcomes by measuring progress, planning. 27 build-measure-learn edit The buildMeasurelearn loop emphasizes speed as a critical ingredient to product development. A team or company's effectiveness is determined by its ability to ideate, quickly build a minimum viable product of that idea, measure its effectiveness in the market, and learn from that experiment. In other words, it's a learning cycle of turning ideas into products, measuring customers' reactions and behaviors against built products, and then deciding whether to persevere or pivot the idea; this process repeats as many times as necessary. The phases of the loop are: Ideas build Product measure data learn. 28 This rapid iteration allows teams to discover a feasible path towards product/market fit, and to continue optimizing and refining the business model after reaching product/market fit.
28 29 Definitions popularized after The lean Startup edit business Model Canvas edit main article: Business Model Canvas The business Model Canvas is a strategic management template invented by Alexander Osterwalder and yves Pigneur for developing new business models or documenting existing ones. It is a visual chart with elements describing a firm's value proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances. It assists firms in aligning their activities by illustrating potential trade-offs. 30 lean Canvas edit The lean Canvas is a version of the business Model Canvas adapted by Ash maurya specifically for startups. 28 The lean Canvas focuses on addressing broad customer problems and solutions and delivering them to customer segments through a unique value proposition.
This undermines the statistical validity of the results, since external events may influence user behavior in one time period but not the other. For example, a split test of two ice cream flavors performed in serial during the summer and winter would see a marked decrease in demand during the winter where that decrease is mostly related to the weather and not to the flavor offer. Another way to incorrectly A/B test is to assign users to one or another A/b version of the product using any non-random method. Actionable metrics edit Actionable metrics can lead to informed business decisions and subsequent action. 7 24 These are in contrast to vanity metrics—measurements that give "the rosiest picture possible" but do not accurately reflect the key drivers of a business.
Vanity metrics for one company may be actionable metrics for another. For example, a company specializing in creating web based dashboards for financial markets might view the number of web page views 20 per person as a vanity metric as their revenue is not based on number of page views. However, an online magazine with advertising would view web page views as a key metric as page views are directly correlated to revenue. A typical example of a vanity metric is "the number of new users gained per day". While a high number of users gained per day seems beneficial to any company, if the cost of acquiring each user through expensive advertising campaigns is significantly higher than the revenue gained per user, then gaining more users could quickly lead to bankruptcy. Pivot edit a pivot is a "structured course correction designed to test a new fundamental hypothesis about the product, strategy, and engine of growth." 7 A notable example of a company employing the pivot is Groupon ; when the company first started, it was. 1 After receiving almost no traction, the founders opened a wordPress blog and launched their first coupon promotion for a pizzeria located in their building lobby. 1 Although they only received 20 redemptions, the founders realized that their idea was significant, and had successfully empowered people to coordinate group action.
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7 21 The goal of an mvp is to test fundamental business hypotheses (or leap-of-faith assumptions) and make to help entrepreneurs begin the learning process as quickly as possible. 7 As an example, ries notes that Zappos founder Nick Swinmurn wanted to test the hypothesis that customers were ready and willing to buy shoes online. 7 Instead of building a website and a large database of footwear, Swinmurn approached local shoe stores, took pictures of their inventory, posted the pictures online, bought the shoes from the stores at full price after he'd made a sale, and then shipped them directly. 7 Swinmurn deduced that customer demand was present, and Zappos would eventually grow into a billion dollar business based on the model of selling shoes online. 7 Continuous deployment (only for software development) edit continuous deployment, similar to continuous delivery, is a process "whereby all code that is written for an application is immediately deployed into production which results in a reduction of cycle times. 22 ries states that some of the companies he's worked with deploy new code into production as often as 50 times a day. 22 The phrase was coined by timothy fitz, one of ries's colleagues and an early engineer at imvu. 7 23 Split testing edit a split or A/B test is an experiment in which "different versions of a product are offered to customers at the same time." 7 The goal of a split test is to observe differences in behavior between the two groups. A/B testing is sometimes incorrectly performed in serial fashion, where a group of users one week may see one version interests of the product while the next week users see another.
17 overview edit similar to the precepts of lean travel manufacturing, the lean startup methodology seeks to eliminate wasteful practices and increase value-producing practices during the product development phase so that startups can have a better chance of success without requiring large amounts of outside funding. 5 Customer feedback during product development is integral to the lean startup process, and ensures that the producer does not invest time designing features or services that consumers do not want. 18 This is done primarily through two processes, using key performance indicators and a continuous deployment process. 2 19 20 Because startups typically cannot afford to have their entire investment depend upon the success of one single product launch, the lean startup methodology proposes that by releasing a minimum viable product that is not yet finalized, the company can then make use. 2 5 The lean startup methodology asserts that the "lean has nothing to do with how much money a company raises rather it has everything to do with assessing the specific demands of consumers and how to meet that demand using the least amount. 4 Definitions edit definitions based on The lean Startup edit In his blog and book, ries uses specific terms to refer to the core lean startup principles. Minimum viable product edit a minimum viable product (MVP) is the "version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort" (similar to a pilot experiment ).
system considers as waste the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer, and continually seeks ways to eliminate such waste. In particular, the system focuses on minimizing inventory throughout the assembly line. Kanban cards are used to signal only when the necessary inputs to production are needed, and in so doing, reduce assembly waste (inventory) and increase productivity. 15 Additionally, immediate quality control checkpoints can identify mistakes or imperfections during assembly as early as possible to ensure that the least amount of time is expended developing a faulty product. 16 Another primary focus of the lean management system is to maintain close connections with suppliers in order to understand their customers' desires. In an article published in the harvard Business review in 2013, ries' mentor Steve blank described how the lean startup methodology also draws its inspiration from the work of people like ian. MacMillan and Rita gunther McGrath who developed a technique called discovery-driven planning, which was an attempt to bring an entrepreneurial mindset to planning.
4 13, next, ries was a senior software engineer with There, inc., 4 13 which ries described as a classic example of a silicon Valley startup with five years of stealth. R d, 40 million in financing, and nearly 200 employees at the time of product launch. 13 In 2003, There, inc. Launched its product, m, but they were unable to garner popularity beyond the initial early adopters. 13 ries claims that despite the many proximate causes for failure, the most important mistake was that the company's "vision was almost too concrete making it impossible to see that their product did not accurately represent consumer demand. 13 Although the lost money differed by orders of magnitude, ries concluded that the failures of There, inc. And Catalyst Recruiting shared similar origins: "it was working forward from the technology instead of working backward from the business results you're trying to achieve." 6 Precursors edit The lean startup methodology is based on lean manufacturing, the streamlined production process pioneered by taiichi Ohno.
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Lean startup is a methodology for developing businesses and products, which aims to shorten product development cycles by adopting a combination of business- shakespeare hypothesis -driven experimentation, iterative product releases, and validated learning. The central hypothesis of the lean startup methodology is that if startup companies invest their time into iteratively building products or services to meet the needs of early customers, they can reduce the market risks and sidestep the need for large amounts of initial project. 1 2, contents, history edit, the lean startup methodology was first proposed in 2008. Eric ries, using his personal experiences adapting lean management principles to high-tech startup companies. 3 4 5, the methodology has since been expanded to apply to any individual, team, or company looking to introduce new products or services into the market. 6, the lean startup's reputation is due in part to the success of ries' bestselling book, the lean Startup, published in September 2011. 7 8 m listed the book as one of their Best Business books of 2011, 11 and by june 2012 the book had sold 90,000 copies. 12, ries' said that his first company, catalyst Recruiting, failed because he and his colleagues did not understand the wants of their target customers, and because they focused too much time and energy on the initial product launch.