Typical contracts would be for baseload, continuous power, since peaking power is ephemeral. Citation needed Elimination of plant and wildlife interference. With very large scale implementations, especially at lower altitudes, it potentially can reduce incoming solar radiation reaching earth's surface. This would be desirable for counteracting the effects of global warming. Drawbacks edit The sbsp concept also has a number of problems: The large cost of launching a satellite into space Inaccessibility: maintenance of an earth-based solar panel is relatively simple, but construction and maintenance on a solar panel in space would typically be done telerobotically. In addition to cost, pdf astronauts working in geo (geosynchronous Earth orbit) are exposed to unacceptably high radiation dangers and risk and cost about one thousand times more than the same task done telerobotically. The space environment is hostile; panels suffer about 8 times the degradation they would on Earth (except at orbits that are protected by the magnetosphere). 39 Space debris is a major hazard to large objects in space, and all large structures such as sbsp systems have been mentioned as potential sources of orbital debris.
36 Challenges edit potential edit The sbsp concept is attractive because space has several major advantages over the earth's surface for the collection of solar power: It is always solar noon in space and full sun. Collecting surfaces could receive much more intense sunlight, owing to the lack of obstructions such as atmospheric gasses, clouds, dust and other weather events. Consequently, the intensity in orbit is approximately 144 of the maximum attainable intensity on Earth's surface. Citation needed a satellite could be illuminated over 99 of the time, and be in Earth's shadow a maximum of only 72 minutes per night at the spring and fall equinoxes at local midnight. 37 Orbiting satellites can be exposed to a consistently high degree of solar radiation, generally for 24 hours per day, whereas earth surface solar panels currently collect power for an average of 29 of the day. 38 Power could be relatively quickly redirected shakespeare directly to areas that need it most. A collecting satellite could possibly direct power on demand to different surface locations based on geographical baseload or peak load power needs.
Dudenhoefer and Patrick. George, nasa glenn Research Center, cleveland, Ohio. Launch costs in the range of 100200 per kilogram of payload to low Earth orbit are needed if sps are to be economically viable. 11 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency edit The may 2014 ieee spectrum magazine carried a lengthy article "It's Always Sunny in Space". 33 The article stated, "It's been the subject of many previous studies and the stuff of sci-fi for decades, but space-based solar power could at last become a reality—and within 25 years, according to a proposal from researchers at the tokyo -based Japan Aerospace Exploration. This is the standard plan for this type of power. 34 35 On mitsubishi heavy industries demonstrated transmission of 10 kilowatts (kW) of power to a receiver unit located at a distance of 500 meters (m) away.
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The program looked both at systems in sun-synchronous orbit and professional geosynchronous orbit. Some of sert's conclusions: The increasing global energy demand is likely to continue for many decades resulting in new power plants of all sizes being built. The environmental impact of those plants and their impact on world energy supplies and geopolitical relationships can be problematic. Renewable energy is a compelling approach, both philosophically and in engineering terms. Many renewable energy sources are limited in their ability to affordably provide the base load power required for global industrial development and prosperity, because of inherent land and water requirements.
Based on their Concept Definition Study, space solar power concepts may be ready to reenter the discussion. Solar power satellites should no longer be envisioned as requiring unimaginably large initial investments in fixed homework infrastructure before the emplacement of productive power plants can begin. Space solar power systems appear to possess many significant environmental advantages when compared to alternative approaches. The economic viability of space solar power systems depends on many factors and the successful development of various new technologies (not least of which is the availability of much lower cost access to space than has been available however, the same can be said. Space solar power may well emerge as a serious candidate among the options for meeting the energy demands of the 21st century. Space solar Power Satellite technology development at the Glenn Research Center—An overview.
Pete worden of nasa claimed that space-based solar is about five orders of magnitude more expensive than solar power from the Arizona desert, with a major cost being the transportation of materials to orbit. Worden referred to possible solutions as speculative, and which would not be available for decades at the earliest. 31 On nov 2, 2012, China proposed space collaboration with India that mentioned sbsp, ". May be Space-based Solar Power initiative so that both India and China can work for long term association with proper funding along with other willing space faring nations to bring space solar power to earth." 32 Space solar Power Exploratory research and Technology program edit. Evaluate studies of the general feasibility, design, and requirements.
Create conceptual designs of subsystems that make use of advanced ssp technologies to benefit future space or terrestrial applications. Formulate a preliminary plan of action for the. (working with international partners) to undertake an aggressive technology initiative. Construct technology development and demonstration roadmaps for critical Space solar Power (SSP) elements. Sert went about developing a solar power satellite (SPS) concept for a future gigawatt space power system, to provide electrical power by converting the sun's energy and beaming it to earth's surface, and provided a conceptual development path that would utilize current technologies. Sert proposed an inflatable photovoltaic gossamer structure with concentrator lenses or solar heat engines to convert sunlight into electricity.
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Shown is the japanese assembly of a microwave transmission antenna. The solar power satellite was to be located in a geosynchronous orbit, 36,000 miles above the earth's surface. Nasa 1976 Resource requirements (Critical Materials, Energy, and Land) 12 Financial/Management Scenarios desk 13 14 Public Acceptance 15 State and Local Regulations as Applied to satellite power System Microwave receiving Antenna facilities 16 Student Participation 17 Potential of Laser for sbsp power Transmission 18 International Agreements. The Office of Technology Assessment concluded that "too little is currently known about the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of sps to make a sound decision whether to proceed with its development and deployment. In addition, without further research an sps demonstration or systems-engineering verification program would be a high-risk venture." 29 In 1997 nasa conducted its "Fresh look" study to examine the modern state of sbsp feasibility. In assessing "What has changed" since the doe study, nasa asserted that the "us national Space policy now calls for nasa to make significant investments in technology (not a particular vehicle) to drive the costs of eto earth to Orbit transportation down dramatically. This is, of course, an absolute requirement of space solar power." 30 Conversely,.
7 Glaser then was a vice president at Arthur. Nasa signed basketball a contract with adl to lead four other companies in a broader study in 1974. They found that, while the concept had several major problems chiefly the expense of putting the required materials in orbit and the lack of experience on projects of this scale in space it showed enough promise to merit further investigation and research. 1986, the congress authorized the department of Energy (DoE) and nasa to jointly investigate the concept. They organized the satellite power System Concept development and evaluation Program. 9 10 The study remains the most extensive performed to date (budget 50 million). 11 several reports were published investigating the engineering feasibility of such an engineering project. They include: Artist's concept of Solar Power Satellite in place.
and Russia. In 2008 Japan passed its Basic Space law which established Space solar Power as a national goal 3 and jaxa has a roadmap to commercial sbsp. In 2015 the China Academy for Space technology (cast) briefed their roadmap at the International Space development Conference (isdc) where they showcased their road map to a 1 gw commercial system in 2050 and unveiled a video 4 and description 5 of their design. Contents History edit a laser pilot beam guides the microwave power transmission to a rectenna In 1941, science fiction writer Isaac Asimov published the science fiction short story " reason in which a space station transmits energy collected from the sun to various planets using. The sbsp concept, originally known as satellite solar-power system (ssps was first described in november 1968. 6 In 1973 Peter Glaser was granted. Patent number 3,781,647 for his method of transmitting power over long distances (e.g. From an sps to earth's surface) using microwaves from a very large antenna (up to one square kilometer) on the satellite to a much larger one, now known as a rectenna, on the ground.
It is attractive to those seeking large-scale solutions to anthropogenic climate change or fossil fuel depletion (such as peak oil ). Various sbsp proposals have been researched since the early 1970s, 1 2 but none are economically viable with present-day space launch infrastructure. A modest Gigawatt-range microwave system, comparable to a large commercial power plant, would require launching some 80,000 tons of material to orbit, making the cost of energy from such a system vastly more expensive than even present-day renewable energy. Some technologists speculate that this may change in the distant future if an off-world industrial base were to be developed that could manufacture solar power satellites movie out of asteroids or lunar material, or if radical new space launch technologies other than rocketry should become available. Besides the cost of implementing such a system, sbsp also introduces several technological hurdles, including the problem of transmitting energy from orbit to earth's surface for use. Since wires extending from Earth's surface to an orbiting satellite are neither practical nor feasible with current technology, sbsp designs generally include the use of some manner of wireless power transmission with its concomitant conversion inefficiencies, as well as land use concerns for the necessary. The collecting satellite would convert solar energy into electrical energy on board, powering a microwave transmitter or laser emitter, and transmit this energy to a collector (or microwave rectenna ) on Earth's surface. Contrary to appearances of sbsp in popular novels and video games, most designs propose beam energy densities that are not harmful if human beings were to be inadvertently exposed, such as if a transmitting satellite's beam were to wander off-course. But the vast size of the receiving antennas that would be necessary would still require large blocks of land near the end users to be procured and dedicated to this purpose.
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See also: Solar panels on spacecraft, nasa suntower concept, space-based solar power (. Sbsp ) is the concept of collecting solar power in outer space and distributing it to, earth. Potential advantages of collecting solar energy in space include a higher collection rate and a longer collection period due to the lack of a diffusing atmosphere, and the possibility of placing a solar collector in an orbiting location where there is no night. A shakespeare considerable fraction of incoming solar energy (5560) is lost on its way through the. Earth's atmosphere by the effects of reflection and absorption. Space-based solar power systems convert sunlight to microwaves outside the atmosphere, avoiding these losses and the downtime due to the. Earth's rotation, but at great cost due to the expense of launching material into orbit. Sbsp is considered a form of sustainable or green energy, renewable energy, and is occasionally considered among climate engineering proposals.